It’s a History of Whales & Whaling…
For many millions of years, Cetaceans have graced our planet. Their recent history, and exploitation has seen much pain…
c. 47 million BC A long, long time ago...
c. 35 million BC A long time ago
Cetaceans are thought to have evolved during the Eocene or earlier, sharing a closest common ancestor with hippopotamuses. Being mammals, they surface to breathe air; they have 5 finger bones (even-toed) in their fins; they nurse their young; and, despite their fully aquatic life style, they retain many skeletal features from their terrestrial ancestors. Mysticeti (baleen whales) and Odontoceti (toothed whales) – are thought to have separated from each other around 28-33 million years ago.
c. 2000 BC
Humans have engaged in whaling since prehistoric times. Early depictions of whaling at the Neolithic Bangudae site in Korea, unearthed by researchers from Kyungpook National University, may date back to 6000 BCE.
The legend of travelling monk, St Brendan was well known in the High Middle Ages: He set off, with followers, from Ireland in 512 for the Land of Promise. On the journey, the monks met demons, were chased by sea serpents and a griffin – and landed on the back of a whale, mistaking it for an island. They celebrate Easter on the sleeping giant’s back, but awaken it when they light their campfire.
Whaling as an industry began around the 11th Century when the Basques started hunting and trading the products from the northern right whale (now one of the most endangered of the great whales). They were followed first by the Dutch and the British, and later by the Americans, Norwegians and many other nations.
Reports of Bowhead Whales around the Spitsbergen Archipelago by explorer William Barents draws hundreds of whale-ships to the Northern waters.
With the arrival of The Mayflower in Massachusetts, Whaling becomes an important part of the New England economy.
King’s Lynn ships join others from Britain in Arctic waters, hunting for whales. The era of organised whaling begins.
The Greenland Fishery house in King’s Lynn becomes a tavern, home to the town’s whalers.
After experiencing life aboard a whaling ship, American writer Herman Melville writes the classic Moby Dick, or The Whale is a novel. The book is sailor Ishmael’s narrative of the obsessive quest of Ahab, captain of the whaling ship Pequod, for revenge on Moby Dick, the giant white sperm whale that on the ship’s previous voyage bit off Ahab’s leg at the knee.
Melville’s story was probably inspired by that of the whaler Essex, which was sunk by a sperm whale in an 1820 incident. The true story of depravation, cannibalism and the sentient whale captures the contemporary imagination of the dangers in whaling.
The rocket-powered explosive harpoon is invented by Sven Foyn and Thomas Roys. More species are exposed to exploitation.